Formulation and Evaluation of Novel Sericin Nanoparticles for Buccal Delivery of Antihypertensive Drug

Pushpa Yadav, Mangla Nand Singh, Dr. Shubhini A Saraf, Neha Katiyar, Ajeet Kumar Singh, Dr. Indranil Yadav


The aim of this study is to prepare and evaluate sericin nanoparticles (NPs) of Verapamil Hcl which are finally formulated as buccal gel. It was envisaged to formulate the nanoparticles with gelatine, sericin and genipin. Nanoparticles incorporated gel was successfully prepared by using carbopol 934. Nanoparticles were prepared by dessolvation followed by crosslinking. Various parameters like drug content, viscosity, pH, spreadability and drug release were used to obtain the optimized formulation. The sericin nanoparticles incorporated gel shows better fast release as compare to API. The obtained results like drug content, % drug release, buccal permeation study confirmed the potential of nanoparticles as good carrier for buccal administration. The optimised sericin nanoparticles range between 100-400 nm with a zeta potential of 29.91mv showing good stability. Later, we proved our hypothesis through In vitro studies for pharmacokinetics, where we found that NPs had better bioavailability than API. NPs showed protective action and maintained normal tissue architecture. We concluded that nanoparticle form of verapamil had better bioavailability and good pharmacological actions, which might be beneficial for future formulation design perspective.


nanoparticles (NPs); verapamil Hcl; sericin; In vivo rat model studies; buccal administration;

Full Text:



Anlar S, Capan Y, Hincal AA (1993). Physico-chemical and bioadhesive properties of polyacrylic acid polymers. Pharmazie. 48: 285–287. Bhat P.N, Nivedita.s, Roy.S (2011). Use of bombyx mori in the synthesis of silvernanoparticles, their characterization and application. Indian Journal of fibre & Textile Research. 36: 168-171.

D. Harris. JR. Robinson (1992). Drug delivery via the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. J Pharma Sci. 81: 1-10.

Din S. Fakhr, A. Mohamed et al (2012). Buccoadhesive tablets for delivery of Verapamil hcl: design, in-vitro analysis and in-vivo evaluation. Bull Pharm Sci. 35(1): 17- 25.

Doaa A. Helal, Dalia ABD El-Rhman, Sally A. Abdel-Halim, Mohamad A. El-Nabarawal (2012). Formulation And Evaluaion Of Fluconazole Topical Gel. Int. J Pharm Sci. 4: 176-183.

F. Hong, L. Ming, S. Yi, L. Zhanxia, W. Yongquan, and L. Chi (2008). The antihypertensive effect of peptides: a novel alternative to drugs. Peptides. 29: 1062–1071.

Gondaliya P. Ravi, D. Shah Parth etal (2013). Buccal Gel Of Verapamil HCl Based On Fenugreek Mucilage And Xanthan Gum: In-Vitro Evaluation. Am J Pharma Tech Res. 3(1).A

Gu JM, Robinson JR, Leung SH (1988). Binding of acrylic polymers to mucin/epithelial surfaces: structure-property relationships. Crit Rev Therap Drug Carr Sys. 5: 21–67.

H. Junginger (1991). Bioadhesive Polymer system in peptide delivery. Acta Pharm Tech. 36(3); 110 -126.

Indian Pharmacopoeia, Controller of Publications, Govt of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, 3rd ed. New Delhi: 1996. p. 634.

Jones DS, Lawlor MS, Woolfson AD (2003). Rheological and mucoadhesive caracterization of polymeric systems composed of poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) designed as platforms for topical drug delivery. J Pharm Sci. 92: 995–1007.

Jones DS, Woolfson AD, Brown AF (1997). Textural, viscoelastic and mocoadhesive properties of pharmaceutical gels composed of cellulose polymers. Int J Pharm. 151: 223-233.

Karavana SY, Güneri P, Ertan G (2009). Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties. Pharma Dev Technol. 14(6): 623-631.

Luana Periolia, Valeria Ambrogi, Fausta Angelici, Maurizio Ricci, Stefano Giovagnoli, Marinella Capuccella, Carlo Rossi (2004). Development of mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of ibuprofen. J Control Release. 99:73–82.

Park H, Robinson JR (1985). Physico-chemical properties of water insoluable polymers important to mucin/epithelial adhesion. J Control Rel. 2: 47–57.

Scmolka IV (1972). Artificial Skin Preparation and properties of pluronic F-127 gels for treatment of burns. J Biomed Mat Res. 6: 571-582.

Shin S, Kim J, Oh I (2000). Mucoadhesive and physicochemical characterization of carbopol poloxamer gels containing triamcinolone acetonide. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 26(3): 307–312.

Smart JD, Kellaway IW, Worthington HE (1984). An in-vitro investigation of mucosa adhesive materials for use in controlled drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol. 36: 295–299.

S. Wiesław, J. Stanisław (2002). Pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil from a buccal drug formulation. Int J Pharma. 238: 181-189.

T. Nagai, Y. Machida (1993). Advanced Drug Delivery- Review. 11: 179–191.

Wantanasiri P, Ratanavaraporn J (2014). Fabrication of silk sericin Alginate Microparticles by electrodynamics spraying techniques f or the controlled release of silk sericin. Journal of Electrostatics. 72: 22-27.

Yves Jacques, Isabel Diaz Del Consuelo, Françoise Falson, Richard H Guy (2007). Ex vivo evaluation of bioadhesive films for buccal delivery of fentanyl. J of Controlled Release. 122: 135–140.

Zhu L.J, Arai M, Hirabayashi K (1996). Sol-gel transition of sericin. Nippon Sanshigaku Zasshi. 65: 270-274.



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research by Sierra Journals is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at